Pre-increment where possible

Take advantage of the fact that PHP allows you to post-increment ($i++) and pre-increment (++$i). The meaning is the same as long as you are not writing anything like $j = $i++, however pre-incrementing is almost 10% faster, which means that you should switch from post- to pre-incrementing when you have the opportunity, especially in tight loops and especially if you’re pedantic about micro-optimisations!

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Use join instead of subqueries

As a programmer, subqueries are something that you can be tempted to use and abuse. Subqueries, as show below, can...